# Analysis of shallow foundation

Shallow foundation problems that can be analyzed are, Figure 2:

1- Stresses in soil.

2- Strains in soil.

3- Displacements in soil.

4- Consolidation settlement.

5- Degree of consolidation.

6- Time-settlement curve.

7- Displacement of rigid raft.

8- Consolidation of rigid raft.

9- Settlement of footing groups.

Figure 2 Menu "Shallow foundation problems"

- 1- Stresses in soil
- 2- Strain in soil
- 3- Displacements in soil
- 4- Consolidation settlement
- 5- Degree of consolidation
- 6- Time-settlement curve
- 7- Displacement of rigid raft
- 8- Consolidation of rigid raft
- 9- Settlement of footing groups

Stresses in the soil can be determined and presented under any point on the foundation or at any plane under the foundation, Figure 3 and Figure 4.

Figure 3 "Stress in soil"

Figure 4 Results as diagrams under a point on the foundation

Strains in the soil can be determined and presented under any point on the foundation or at any plane under the foundation (Figure 5 and Figure 6).

Figure 5 "Strain in soil"

Figure 6 Strains in the soil as contour

Displacements in the soil can be determined and presented under any point on the foundation or at any plane under the foundation (Figure 7 and Figure 8).

Figure 7 "Displacements in the soil"

Figure 8 Displacements in the soil as contour

Final consolidation settlement for any irregular foundation on layered soil can be determined, Figures 9 to 11.

Figure 9 "Consolidation settlement"

Figure 10 "Consolidation settlement", Soil data

Figure 11 Final consolidation settlement under a rectangular loaded area

Degree of consolidation The degree of consolidation for linear and nonlinear analysis can be determined for multi-layered clayey soil with different calculation methods. Cyclic loading for more than 14 types of cyclic loading can be also determined. Initial pore water pressure on the clay layers can be defined by the user or determined due to different types of load geometries on the surface. The consolidation settlement in the place (

*x*,*y*) due to point load, rectangular uniform load, or circular uniform load on the surface can be determined (Figure 12 to Figure 16).Figure 12 "Degree of consolidation"

Figure 13 Degree of consolidation", Soil data

Figure 14 "Degree of consolidation", Pore water pressure

Figure 15 Pore water pressure with time for multi-layered clayey soil

Figure 16 Degree of consolidation for cyclic loading

The time-settlement curve of a building can be determined by three methods. Also, settlements during the construction time and the final settlement from measurement results can be estimated through extrapolation. The load can be applied in steps with time, (Figure 17 to Figure 20).

Figure 17 "Time-loading curve"

Figure 18 "Time-loading curve", Time-loading data

Figure 19 Time-Load curve

Figure 20 Corrected time-settlement determination

Displacement and contact pressure under a rigid rectangular or circular raft on a soil layer can be determined analytically or numerically. Also, half-space soil model can be considered, Figure 21 and Figure 22.

Figure 21 "Displacement of rigid raft"

Figure 22 Contact pressure of a rigid raft

Final consolidation settlement and contact pressure under a rigid rectangular or circular raft on a clay layer can be determined analytically or numerically. Also, a half-space soil model can be considered, (Figure 23 to Figure 25).

Figure 23 "Consolidation of rigid raft"

Figure 24 Contact pressure as contour lines under a rigid raft

Figure 25 Consolidation settlement as contour lines under a rigid raft

Limit depth and settlement of footing group on a layered soil can be determined, Figure 26 to Figure 31

Figure 26 "Settlement of footing groups"

Figure 27 "Settlement of footing groups", Loads and dimensions"

Figure 28 "Settlement of footing groups", Soil profile

Figure 29 System of loading and dimension of footing group

Figure 30 Settlement of a group of footings

Figure 31 Limit depth calculation and stress under the footing