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Unit 6: Solids, Liquids and Gases Notebook Labs

View Scoring Rubrics (link coming soon)

The following items should be in the Unit 6 portion of your notebook.  They should be clearly organized and easy to find.  Use an organizational system and label all work. Each lab will be graded separately.  Eight Unit 1 lab grades will be entered into the gradebook.  An overall notebook grade will be determined based on your use of the notebook as an organized and effective record-keeping tool which documents your engagement in the learning cycle during classtime.






Lab SLG1 - Pressure vs. Volume

Question:
What is the relationship (i.e., mathematical equation) between gas pressure and gas volume?

Purpose:
To determine the mathematical relationship (i.e. mathematical equation) between gas pressure and gas volume.

Safety:
None

Disposal:
None

A complete lab report will include a Title, a Purpose section, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion section.  The Data section should include a screenshot (or two) with the plotted data, the plot with the curve fit clearly visible, and a view of the k slider and value for the xy=k equation. The Conclusion/Discussion includes a well-written claim with evidence and reasoning. The claim must include an equation written with symbols P and V. The evidence and reasoning that supports your claim should be intelligently discussed. This would involve briefly discussing the procedure, the plotting and curve-fitting process with more detail, and describing how the plot and curve logically leads to the claim you are making.






Lab SLG2 - Pressure vs. Temperature

Question:
What is the relationship (i.e., mathematical equation) between gas pressure and gas temperature?

Purpose:
To determine the mathematical relationship (i.e. mathematical equation) between gas pressure and gas temperature.

Safety:
None

Disposal:
None

A complete lab report will include a Title, a Purpose section, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion section.  The Data section should include the Logger Pro plot of pressure vs. temperature with the best-fit line shown. The Conclusion/Discussion includes a well-written claim with evidence and reasoning. The claim must include an equation written with symbols P and T. The evidence and reasoning that supports your claim should be intelligently discussed. This would involve briefly discussing the procedure, the plotting and line-fitting process with more detail, and describing how the plot and line logically leads to the claim you are making.








Lab SLG3 - Molar Volume of a Gas

Question:
What is the volume occupied per mole of a gas at standard temperature and pressure conditions (STP)?

Purpose:
To determine the volume occupied per mole of a gas at standard temperature and pressure conditions (STP).

Safety:
Hydrochloric acid is corrosive; avoid contact with eyes and skin; wipe up spills immediately.  Keep hair and paper away from flames.  Weak goggles at all times. Wash hands thoroughly before leaving the laboratory.

Disposal:
The copper wire/cage should be rinsed and left on the lab table.  Unreacted magnesium should be thrown in the garbage can. Lab tables should be rinsed before leaving the lab. Eudiometer tubes should be mounted upside down in order to dry.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose section, a Data section, a Conclusion, and a Discussion section.  The Data section should include the results of your measurements and all calculations.  Measurements should be recorded in a table and clearly labeled with a unit and the indicated quantity.  Calculations should be organized and labeled with units and the indicated quantity.  The logic behind each calculated step should be briefly annotated.  Attention should be given to units and significant digits. Calculations should led to the experimentally determined value of molar volume at STP. The Conclusion should use a brief sentence to indicate the answer to the question posed in the purpose of the lab.  The Discussion of Results should include an error analysis.  Like all error analyses, you should respond to the question How did we do?  This means you should discuss the expected answer to the question and compare the expected answer to the experimental answer.  A percent error calculation should be included and discussed;  the work should be clearly shown.  Specific sources of error should be identified.









Lab SLG4 - Flick the Bic and Mass the Gas

Question:
What is the molar mass of the gas in a butane lighter?

Purpose:
To determine the molar mass of the gas in a butane lighter.

Safety:
Butane is a flammable gas and should be kept away from sparks, flames and heat. 

Disposal:
Butane should be disposed of in the fume hood. Butane lighters should be returned to the teacher.  Eudiometer tubes should be mounted upside down in order to dry.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose section, a Data section, a Conclusion, and a Discussion section.  The Data section should include the results of your measurements and all calculations.  Measurements should be recorded in a table and clearly labeled with a unit and the indicated quantity.  Calculations should be organized and labeled with units and the indicated quantity.  The logic behind each calculated step should be briefly annotated.  Attention should be given to units and significant digits. Calculations should lead to the experimentally determined value of the molar mass of butane. The Conclusion should use a brief sentence to indicate the answer to the question posed in the purpose of the lab.  The Discussion of Results should include an error analysis.  Like all error analyses, you should respond to the question How did we do?  This means you should discuss the expected answer to the question and compare the expected answer to the experimental answer.  A percent error calculation should be included and discussed;  the work should be clearly shown.  Specific sources of error should be identified. 











Lab SLG5 - Heating Curve

Question:
What happens as a sample of ice is heated past its freezing point to its boiling temperature?

Purpose:
To construct a plot of the heating curve of water and to interpret the results.

Safety:
Wear goggles at all times. Exercise caution when working around a hot plate or burner.

Disposal:
The water can (of course) be poured down the drain.  Turn off your burner and tidy up your lab station.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose section, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion section.  The Data section should include a table of collected data with column headings and units for the heating of ice and a computer-generated plot with labeled axes.  The Conclusion/Discussion should address the provided questions (below).  The discussion should not just be an enumerated list of answers to questions, but instead should be a fluent discussion of the lab results which in turn respond to the questions.

The Questions:
1. Observe the plateaus on the graph.  What could be happening during these plateaus?
2. Based on your data and observations, what is the melting point and the boiling point of water?
3. Describe what happens at the particle level as heat is added to a substance and its temperature increases.
4. Describe what happens at the particle level as heat is added to a substance and its phase changes.








Lab SLG6 - Properties of Liquids

Question:
How are the strength of the intermolecular forces in a liquid related to the properties which the liquid exhibits?

Purpose:
To determine the relationship between the strength of the intermolecular forces in a liquid and the observable properties which the liquid exhibits.

Safety:
Avoid inhaling the vapors of the liquids. Wear goggles at all times. Avoid contact of clothing and skin with liquids.

Disposal:
Tidy up your station before leaving for the next station.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose section, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion section.  The Data section should include the provided handout (taped in).  Handout is completed with reasonably accurate observations, rankings and discussions. The Conclusion/Discussion focuses on two stations and explains the underlying reasons for the observations in terms of the strength of the intermolecular forces for the liquids.









Lab SLG7 - Brass Pennies

Question:
How can the formation of brass be performed and explained at the particle level?

Purpose:
To make brass from copper and zinc and to provide a particle model explanation of the phenomenon.

Safety:
This activity requires adult supervision. NaOH should be handled with great care. It is corrosive and can burn skin. Zinc dust should not be inhaled. Safety glasses should be worn throughout this entire activity.

Disposal:
Solids should be disposed of in the garbage can. Solutions can be poured down the drain and rinsed thoroughly. Pennies should be sold for high value to those who are ignorant of scientific principles.

A complete lab report will include a Title, a Purpose section, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion section. The Data section should include some notes and observations. The Conclusion/Discussion should include a paragraph explaining in scientific terms what is happening as the brass is being formed.














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