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All lab work should be completed in your course notebook and be recorded on the right side of the open notebook. If you come to the end of the page, you must of course turn the page over and continue writing on the back of the page on the right side of the page of the open notebook. Any accompanying sheets must be taped, glued, stapled or somehow attached to the lab notebook; scotch tape is always available in the room.

Scoring Rubrics for each lab are available online. These will also be distributed in class a couple days prior to notebook collection. View:

Scoring Rubrics for Unit 6 Labs (check back later)



CL1:  It's All Uphill Lab

Question: 
What effect does varying the angle of incline have upon the force needed to pull a cart up a hill at a constant speed to the same height?  What effect does a varying incline angle have upon the work done?

Purpose: 
To determine the effect of the angle of incline upon the force needed and upon the work done when pulling a cart up an incline to the same height at a constant speed.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results.  The Data section should include the provided table and graphs.  A single sample calculation of the work should be shown in an organized manner. The Conclusion/Discussion should answer both questions posed in the Purpose and reference specific details from the data and graphs which provide the evidence for such a Conclusion; the link between the evidence and the conclusion should be clearly explained.






CL2:  Marble Energy Lab


Question: 
What is the effect of varying the release location of a marble along an incline upon the distance which the marble drives a paper plow along a level table? Can an equation be written which describes the effect (presuming that there is one)?

Purpose: 
To determine the effect of the release location (distance from the bottom) of a marble along an incline upon the distance which a paper plow is driven along the level table;  and to determine a mathematical equation which describes the relationship between these two variables.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results.  The Data section should include a diagram or sketch of the situation.  The strategic variables being measured or investigated should be identified on the diagram. A table of collected data should be included;  columns should be labeled and units identified.  A plot of the two measured quantities should be constructed and sketched;  linear regression or power regression should be performed and statistical information (e.g., slope, y-intercept, and regression constant) should be reported.  The Conclusion/Discussion should answer the questions posed in the Purpose and discuss the evidence which supports such answers.






CL3:  Powerhouse Lab

Question: 
What is my power requirement for climbing a staircase - both by walking and by running?

Purpose: 
To determine my power requirement for climbing a staircase - both by walking and by running.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion.  The Data section should include a table of both measured and calculated data for both walking and running up a flight of stairs.  The rows and columns should be labeled; units should be identified. Work should be shown for each calculation;  the work should be labeled and easy to follow.  The Conclusion should (as always) answer the questions posed in the Purpose.






Lab CL4: Work-Kinetic Energy Lab

Question:
What is the relationship between the work done upon a cart and the kinetic energy change of the cart as it is pulled along a level surface by a horizontal force?

Purpose: 
To determine the mathematical relationship between or equation relating the work done upon a cart and the kinetic energy change of the cart as it is pulled along a level surface.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results.  The Data section should include the provided table of data.  A sample calculation should be provided for each type of calculation; work should be clear and labeled. The Conclusion/Discussion should include a mathematical statement or equation which relates the work done upon the cart to the kinetic energy change of the cart.  Evidence supporting the statement should be provided.  An error analysis should be conducted.







Lab CL5: Electric Field Lines

Question:
What is the total amount of mechanical energy for a cart moving along an incline plane at five different locations?  How do the results compare to the expected results?

Purpose: 
To determine the total amount of mechanical energy of a cart on an inclined plane at 5 different positions and to compare the results to the expected results.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion.  The Data section should include the provided table.  Work must be shown for the KE, PE and TME calculations. The energy bar charts should be completed.  The Conclusion/Discussion should include a comparison of the total energy at the five positions and a generalization about the principle which the data support.  An error analysis should be conducted in which the expectations are discussed; the degree to which the data align with the expectations should be described. Averaging and percent differences should be used.






Lab CL6: Energy of a Pendulum Lab

Question:
What is the total amount of mechanical energy for a pendulum bob at three different locations along its path?  How do the results compare to the expected results?

Purpose: 
To determine the total amount of mechanical energy of a pendulum bob at three different positions along its trajectory and to compare the results to the expected results.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results.  The data section should provide a graphic labeling the three locations in the trajectory of the bob which were analyzed. It should also include two tables of data - one for collected data and one for calculated data. The tables should have a row and column format; column headings should be clearly stated; units should be provided; work should be clearly shown for all calculated data.  The Conclusion/Discussion should include a comparison of the total energy at three positions and a generalization about the principle which the data support.  An error analysis should be conducted in which the expectations are discussed; the degree to which the data align with the expectations should be described. Averaging and percent differences should be used.







Lab CL7: Stopping Distance Lab

Question:
What is the mathematical relationship between the stopping distance of a car and the initial speed of the car before braking?

Purpose: 
To determine the mathematical relationship (i.e., equation) relating the stopping distance of a car and the initial speed of the car before braking.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results.  The Data section should organize the collected data in a table with labeled column headings and units. A plot of stopping distance versus speed should be included;  linear or power regression should be performed and the results (equation, statistical information, etc.) should be reported. The Conclusion should answer the question posed in the Purpose.  The Discussion of Results section should use theoretical considerations to discuss the expected relationship; the degree to which the experimental results match the theoretically predicted results should be discussed.








Lab CL8: Being Impulsive About Momentum Change Lab

Question:
How does the impulse experienced by an object in a collision compare to the resulting momentum change of that object?

Purpose: 
To compare the impulse experienced by an object to the resulting change in momentum of the object.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results.  The Data section should include a sketch of any relevant graphs obtained from the LabPro interface software; comments, descriptions and relevant quantitative information should be provided for each graph.  The Conclusion should respond to the Purpose of the Lab (as always).  The Discussion of Results should include a discussion of the manner in which the evidence supports the conclusion; specific data results should be referenced.  Wherever relevant, percent difference calculations should be considered.







Lab CL9: Balloon Toss Lab

Question:
What variables affect the impact force in a collision and in what manner do they affect the force?

Purpose: 
To investigate the effect of three variables (mass, collision time, velocity change) upon the impact force in a collision.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Post-Lab Questions section.  The Data section should include some observations of the effect of varying mass, collision time and velocity change upon the impact force on a balloon.  The Conclusion should respond to the question raised in the Purpose.  The provided Post-Lab Questions should be completed and taped into your lab notebook.






Lab CL10: Rebounding versus Sticking Lab

Question:
How does the impulse and resulting momentum change of an object compare for two different collisions – an elastic collision involving rebounding and an inelastic collision in which the object sticks to the collision surface?

Purpose: 
To conduct an impulse-momentum change analysis for two types of collisions - one elastic and the other inelastic - and to compare the momentum change and impulse for the two collision types.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results.  The Data section should include a sketch of any relevant graphs obtained from the LabPro interface software; comments, descriptions and relevant quantitative information should be provided for each graph.  The Conclusion should respond to the Purpose of the Lab (as always).  The Discussion of Results should include a discussion of the manner in which the evidence supports the conclusion;  specific data results should be referenced.






Lab CL11: Action-Reaction Lab

Question:
How do the post-explosion momenta of two carts which are propelled away from each other by an identical force compare to each other?

Purpose: 
To compare the post-explosion momenta of two carts which are propelled away from each other by an identical force.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results.  The Data section should include a sample sketch of the velocity-time graphs and a table of data, organized in rows and columns in order to describe the results for several trials with carts of varying mass combinations.  Both measured and calculated data should be included.  At least one example calculation should be provided for each type of calculation.  The Conclusion/Discussion should involve a comparison of the post-explosion momenta of the two individual carts.  An error analysis should be conducted and percent differences should be calculated for the various data trials.







Lab CL12: Before and After Lab

Question:
What predictive principles might be capable of describing the post-collision results for simple inelastic and elastic collisions?

Purpose: 
To qualitatively and systematically analyze a several simple collisions in an effort to develop some predictive principles associated with a collision analysis.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results.  The Data section should include a description (diagrams preferred) of the before- and after-collision momentum of two colliding carts.  Several trials of observations for a systematic method of variable manipulation should be documented;  at least four inelastic and at least two elastic collisions should be tested. The Conclusion/Discussion should reference the data trials in an effort to state some general principles regarding changes in momentum of individual objects and total system momentum.  Words and/or sample numbers should be used in the discussion.







Lab CL13: Inelastic Collision Analysis Lab

Question:
What is the evidence that momentum is conserved in an inelastic collision between two carts?  In what manner does the evidence support the law of momentum conservation?

Purpose: 
To gather convincing evidence that total system momentum is conserved in an inelastic collision between two carts AND to describe how the evidence supports the law of momentum conservation.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results.  The Data section should include the provided table.  One example calculation should be shown for each type of calculation.  The Conclusion/Discussion should provide a thorough analysis of the results, identifying successful and unsuccessful trials; specific evidence from each trial which indicate success (or lack thereof) should be elaborated upon.  Percent error or percent difference calculations should be performed and a complete error analysis included within the discussion.







Lab CL14: Sand Balloon Lab

Question:
How does the total momentum (vector sum) of two objects before a collision compare to the total momentum after the collision?

Purpose: 
To compare the total momentum of two objects before a collision to the total momentum of the two objects after the collision.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results.  The Data section should include an organized table of pre- and post-collision velocity and mass values.  Work should be shown for each type of calculation performed. The Conclusion/Discussion should involve a comparison of the pre- and the post-collision momentum of the system of two objects.  An error analysis should be conducted and percent differences should be calculated for the various data trials.








Lab CL15: Elastic Collision Analysis Lab

Question:
What is the evidence that momentum is conserved in an elastic collision between two carts?  In what manner does the evidence support the law of momentum conservation?

Purpose: 
To gather convincing evidence that total system momentum is conserved in an explosion-like impulse between two stationary carts AND to describe how the evidence supports the law of momentum conservation.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results.  The Data section should include two tables - one for collected data and one for calculated data;  they should be organized in a row column format.  Several data trials should be performed in an effort to accomplish the stated purpose. One example calculation should be shown for each type of calculation.  The Conclusion/Discussion should provide a thorough analysis of the results, identifying successful and unsuccessful trials; specific evidence from each trial which indicate success (or lack thereof) should be elaborated upon.  Percent error or percent difference calculations should be performed and a complete error analysis included within the discussion.








Lab CL16: What's Cooking? Lab

Question:
What is the speed of a ball (in miles/hour) fired from a cannon?

Purpose: 
To determine the speed (in miles/hour) of a tennis ball which is fired from a cannon.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion.  The Data section should include a diagram of the physical setup, with the specific variables being measured represented in the diagram.  Actual data values should be organized in a table with a row-column format. One example calculation should be shown for each type of calculation.  The Conclusion should answer the question posed in the Purpose.










Lab CL17: Two-Dimensional Collision Lab

Question:
What is the evidence that momentum is conserved in a two-dimensional collision?  In what manner does the evidence support the law of momentum conservation?

Purpose: 
To conduct a vector analysis of a two dimensional collision in an effort to gather convincing evidence that the total system momentum is conserved AND to describe how the evidence supports the law of momentum conservation.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results.  The Data section should include a sketch of the experimental results as gathered by the carbon paper impressions (collision location, pre-collision landing location and striker and target sphere post-collision landing location).  Actual measurements taken from the large paper should be recorded on your sketch and labeled using the usual conventions (p1, p1', p2', 1, 2, etc.).  A well-organized mathematical analysis should be conducted to show that momentum is conserved (or not conserved) in both the x- and the y-dimensions.  Work should be labeled and follow-able.  The Conclusion should explain how it is known that total system momentum is conserved; it should also include an error analysis.














 





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