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The Laboratory

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All lab work should be completed in your course notebook and be recorded on the right side of the open notebook. If you come to the end of the page, you must of course turn the page over and continue writing on the back of the page on the right side of the page of the open notebook. Any accompanying sheets must be taped, glued, stapled or somehow attached to the lab notebook; scotch tape is always available in the room.

Scoring Rubrics for each lab are available online. These will also be distributed in class a couple days prior to notebook collection. View:



Lab K1:  Those Wheels Are Hot Lab

Question: 
What is the distance, displacement, average speed and average velocity of a Hot Wheels car?

Purpose: 
To determine the distance, displacement, average speed, and average velocity of a Hot Wheels car moving along a track layout that maximizes distance and minimizes displacement.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion.  The Data section should include a TOP-VIEW sketch of the track layout and a table that displays measured values (distance, displacement, time), calculated values (average speed, average velocity), and organized work. The Conclusion should include a sentence or two that reports the answer to the question raised in the Purpose.




Lab K2: Position-Time Graph Lab


Question:
How can the following types of motion be described with a position-time graph? (moving in the positive direction versus moving in the negative direction; moving fast versus moving slow; moving with a constant speed versus moving with a gradually changing speed; speeding up versus slowing down; etc.)

Purpose: 
To contrast the shape and slope of the position-time graphs for the following types of motion:
  • moving in the + direction versus moving in the - direction
  • moving fast versus moving slow
  •  constant speed motion versus a gradually changing speed
  • a speeding up motion versus a slowing down motion
  • combinations of the above

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion. The Data section should include one graph for each contrasting set of two motions; axes should be labeled;  labels or color coding or some other method should be used to distinguish between the two motions. The Conclusion/Discussion section should provide a thorough discussion of the differences in the position-time graphs for the variety of motions under study. Graphs in the Data section should be referenced.





Lab K3: Velocity-Time Graphs Lab

Question:
How can the following types of motion be described with a velocity-time graph? (moving in the positive direction versus moving in the negative direction; moving fast versus moving slow; moving with a constant speed versus moving with a gradually changing speed; speeding up versus slowing down; etc.)

Purpose: 
To contrast the shape and slope of the velocity-time graphs for the following types of motion:
  • moving in the + direction versus moving in the - direction
  • moving fast versus moving slow
  • a constant speed motion versus a gradually changing speed
  • a speeding up motion versus a slowing down motion
  • moving in the same direction versus changing directions
  • combinations of the above

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion/Discussion. The Data section should include one graph for each contrasting set of two motions; axes should be labeled;  labels or color coding or some other method should be used to distinguish between the two motions. The Conclusion/Discussion section should provide a thorough discussion of the differences in the velocity-time graphs for the variety of motions under study. Graphs in the Data section should be referenced.





Lab K4: Free Fall Lab

Question:
How can the acceleration of a free-falling object be described? Is it constant or changing? Is it directed upward or downward?  Is there a magnitude that is commonly associated with it?

Purpose: 
To describe the acceleration of a free-falling object as being either constant or changing;  as being directed upward, downward or both (depending on some other variable); and as having a particular numerical value.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a sketch of the velocity-time graph representing the object's motion. Results of the slope analyses should be organized in a table; an average of all trials (except those which are obvious outliers) should be recorded.  Class data should be recorded and labeled as such.  The Conclusion should respond to the questions raised in the Purpose of the lab. The Discussion section should include an error analysis.





Lab K5: Up and Down Lab

Question:
What is the acceleration value of a free-falling object? Does the value depend upon the mass of the object?

Purpose: 
To determine the acceleration value of a falling ball and to compare the value to the acceleration of other balls having a different mass.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a statement of the object mass, a print-out of a Logger Pro graph with Linear Regression statistics, and a plot of acceleration vs. mass for the data from both classes. The Conclusion should include a claim that responds to both questions raised in the Purpose of the lab. The Discussion of Results section should include a discussion of the evidence that supports both claims made in the Conclusion; references to specific parts of the Data section should be made. Logical reasoning should be included that explains why you made the claim that you did and not any other one.





Lab K6: Map Column

Question:
What is the final destination and the resultant displacement for each of three sets of displacement vectors?

Purpose: 
To identify the final destination and the resultant displacement for three sets of two or more displacement vectors.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion, and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include the provided table; the table should be completed using the colored Northfield Township map. The Conclusion should identify the three trips that were taken and the final destination (e.g., intersection or specific landmark).  The Discussion section should include a trigonometric analysis (Pythagorean theorem and SOH CAH TOA) of one of the three trips. The analysis should include a diagram of the vectors being added together in head-to-tail fashion; it should also include careful work showing how the magnitude and direction can be predicted using trigonometric functions. The predicted value should be compared to the measured value.





Lab K7: As the Crow Flies Lab

Question:
What is the as-the-crow-flies displacement from the Physics room (Room 332) to an assigned location in the school?

Purpose: 
To determine the as-the-crow-flies displacement from the Physics room (Room 332) to a designated location within the school.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion. The Data section should include a table of the magnitude and the direction of each of your hallway displacements used to reach your assigned destination. The number (or letter) of the destination should be indicated. This section should also include a trigonometric analysis of the data and a scaled vector diagram analysis; the two separate analyses should be on separate sheets of paper (provided). The analyses should be organized, labeled and follow-able. All work should be shown for your trigonometric analysis. In the scaled vector diagram:  indicate a scale, label the magnitudes of all vectors, place arrowheads on all vectors, draw and label the resultant, identify the measured and scaled-up magnitude of the resultant and identify the direction of the resultant. The Conclusion should respond to the question raised in the Purpose.





Lab K8: Where Am I? Lab

Question:
What is the ultimate destination that results from the combination of three displacement vectors?

Purpose: 
To identify the ultimate destination which results from the combination of three displacement vectors.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion. The Data section should include the provided table.  For each vector, the vector should be sketched and labeled with magnitude and angle with respect to a nearby axis; the N-S and E-W components should be calculated; work should be organized and labeled. The final destination should be identified. The Conclusion responds to the question raised in the Purpose (as always).





Lab K9: Crossing the River Lab

Question:
For a boat heading straight across a river, how does an change in the boat speed effect the resulting velocity, the crossing time and the downstream distance?  How does a change in current speed effect the resulting velocity, the crossing time and the downstream distance?

Purpose: 
To determine the effect of varying boat speeds on the resulting velocity, the crossing time and the downstream distance for a boat which heads straight across a river   AND   to determine the effect of varying current speeds on the resulting velocity, the crossing time and the downstream distance for a boat which heads straight across a river.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion. The Data section should include suitable data for investigating the purpose; the data should be organized in tables with column headings and units.  The organization of data should reflect your ability to systematically conduct an investigation. The Conclusion/Discussion should respond to the multi-part Purpose of the lab; each conclusion should reference appropriate data in order to provide supporting evidence.





Lab K10: Projected Distance Lab

Question:
What is the mathematical relationship between the horizontal displacement (d) and the original speed (vo) of a ball rolling off a desk?

Purpose:
To determine the mathematical relationship between the horizontal displacement (d) and the original speed (vo) of a ball rolling off a desk.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion. The Data section should include a table of d-vo data with labeled columns and units; many, many trials (>10) should be included. A plot of d vs. vo should be constructed and included in the lab report as either a printout or a sketch; a best-fit line and linear regression statistics  (slope, y-intercept and regression constant) should be included. The Conclusion should state the mathematical relationship between the studied variables using qualitative terms (As the original speed increases, ...) and using a mathematical equation.




K11.   Basketball Analysis Lab

Question: 
How can the changes (or lack of changes) in the motion quantities (position, velocity and acceleration) of a projectile be described over the course of time?

Purpose: 
To describe how the motion quantities (position, velocity and acceleration) of a projectile change (or don't change) over the course of time.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion. The Data section includes plots of the dx and dy values with respect to time, plots of the vx and vy values with respect to time and plots of the ax and ay values with respect to time.  All plots should be clearly labeled.  Slope values for the two velocity graphs should be shown and labeled beside each graph.  The Conclusion/Discussion should use words to thoroughly respond to the question raised in the Purpose.  For each conclusion statement, at least one piece of supporting evidence should be provided; six sentences would be the minimum amount of writing.




K12.   Launcher Speed Lab

Question: 
What is the launch speed of the projectile launcher?

Purpose: 
To determine the launch speed of the projectile launcher.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion. The Data section should include a diagram of the experimental setup with measured distances (or customary symbols for pertinent quantities) indicated on the diagram. There should be several trials of good dx data values; units should be indicated. An average dx value should be reported and subsequently used to calculate the launch speed. The calculations should be organized and clear, identifying the symbols of the variables being used in multiplication and division steps in addition to the numerical quantities.  The Conclusion should include a claim that responds to the question raised in the Purpose (as always).



K13.   Maximum Range Lab

Question: 
How does the angle of launch effect the range of an angle-launched projectile and what angle provides for the maximum range?

Purpose: 
To determine the effect of the angle of launch upon the range (i.e., the horizontal displacement) of an angle-launched projectile and to determine the angle which results in the maximum range.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a table of data with labeled column headings and units. The provided graph should be included with data points accurately plotted to show range as a function of angle. The Conclusion should respond to the two questions raised in the Purpose of the lab. The Discussion of Results should include theoretical predictions of range for 30, 45 and 60. Work should be clearly organized and shown. An error analysis should be included using the results of the theoretical predictions and other information from textbook readings.




K14.   Hit the Target Lab

Question: 
Given the horizontal distance from a projectile launcher to a target, at what height must the target be placed in order for the projectile to strike it?

Purpose: 
To predict the height at which a target must be placed upon a vertical board a given distance from the angled launcher in order for the projectile to strike the target.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion. The Data section should include a diagram of the experimental set-up with distances and angles listed upon the diagram. The launch speed (from previous lab) should be listed. A complete and organized solution to the challenge should be shown. Calculations should identify the symbols of the variables being used in multiplication and division steps in addition to the numerical quantities. A percent error analysis should be performed; work should be shown and labeled. The Conclusion/Discussion should state the predicted height and identify whether the result was successful or not.















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