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All lab work should be completed in your course notebook and be recorded on the right side of the open notebook. If you come to the end of the page, you must of course turn the page over and continue writing on the back of the page on the right side of the page of the open notebook. Any accompanying sheets must be taped, glued, stapled or somehow attached to the lab notebook; scotch tape is always available in the room.

Scoring Rubrics for each lab are available online. These will also be distributed in class a couple days prior to notebook collection. View:

Scoring Rubric (not yet ready)



Lab E1:  Action at a Distance

Question: 
What are the three types of charge interactions?

Purpose: 
To describe the three types of charge interactions and then to use a negatively charged balloon to determine the type of charge on the top triangle tape and the bottom rectangle tape.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results.  The Data section should include observations of the interaction between paper and tape, two tapes charged in like manner, and the top triangle tape and the bottom rectangle tape, and both tapes and a negatively charged balloon.  The Conclusion/Discussion should describe the three types of charge interactions; it should also state the charge on the two types of tape and describe the supporting evidence and logic which leads to such a conclusion.









Lab E2: Sticky Tape Experiments

Question:
How does the variety of materials rank in terms of their relative affinity for electrons?

Purpose:
To charge a variety of materials by rubbing them together and to examine their interactions with a positive, negative and neutral object in order to rank the materials according to their relative affinity for electrons.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include the provided table.  The Conclusion/Discussion section should provide a ranking of the materials according to their relative affinity for electrons.  Evidence for the ranking should be discussed. Any suspicious or inconsistent results should be discussed.









Lab E3: Charging by Induction

Question:
What is the charge on a B-Tape, a T-Tape, and an aluminum pie plate that has been charged with a negatively-charged foam board?

Purpose:
To determine the type of charge on a B-Tape, T-Tape, and an aluminum pie plate that is charged by induction using a negatively-charged foam plate.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results.  The Data section should include a table with recorded observations of all interactions and the corresponding conclusion regarding its charge. Conclusion answers the questions posed in the Purpose of the lab. The Discussion of Results explains the two-step induction charging process in considerable detail, including a diagram for each of the two steps.





Lab E4: Electric Field Simulation

Question:
What variables do and do not effect the strength of the electric field intensity at a given location surrounding a source of charge?

Purpose:
To identify the variables which do and do not effect the strength of the electric field intensity at a given location surrounding a source of charge.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results.  The Data section reveals a table of data which reveal a systematic approach to experimentation with the three possible variables and the resulting value of the electric field strength.  Conclusion responds (as always) to the question posed in the Purpose.  The Discussion of Results should describes specific data which serve as supporting evidence for the conclusion.










Lab E5: Electric Field Lines

Question:
What is the nature of the electric field line pattern in the space surrounding a positive charge, a negative charge and a configuration of two or more charges?

Purpose:
To describe the nature of the electric field line pattern in the space surrounding a positive charge, a negative charge and a configuration of two or more charges.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results.  The Data section should include several diagrams depicting the electric field line patterns for a positive charge, a negative charge, a configuration of two identically and two oppositely charged objects, and two other multi-charge configurations. The diagrams should include arrowheads on the electric field lines and contain a sufficient number of lines to provide a feel for the pattern.  The Conclusion/Discussion should identify the general principles that characterize all the patterns.








Lab E6: Coulomb’s Law

Question:
How many electrons are transferred from a balloon when rubbed 10 times with animal fur?

Purpose:
To use Coulomb's law and vector principles to determine the number of electrons which are transferred to a balloon as the result of 10 average-strength rubs on animal fur.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion.  The Data section should include a diagram of the experimental setup with measured variables clearly identified.  A systematic collection of calculations should be shown.  Work should be labeled clearly and the logic behind each step should be briefly annotated. The Conclusion should (as always) respond to the question raised in the Purpose.









Lab E7: Sparky the Electrician Lab

Question:


What are the two requirements for an electric circuit?


Purpose:

To identify the four successful arrangements of wire, bulb and battery which successfully light a bulb and a couple of unsuccessful arrangements AND to describe the commonalities of those arrangements by identifying the two requirements for an electric circuit.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section includes sketches of the four successful arrangements and at least two unsuccessful arrangements. The Conclusion describes the two requirements for an electric circuit. The Discussion of Results should explain why the unsuccessful arrangements were unsuccessful in terms of how they fail to meet the requirements; and uses one of the successful arrangements to elaborate on the meaning of each requirement.









Lab E8: First to Light 

Question:
Which light within a simple electric circuit is the first to light? Is it the light closest to the positive terminal? ... closest to the negative terminal? ... or do all lights seem to light at the same time?


Purpose:

To determine which light bulb (if any) within a 2- or a 3-bulb circuit is the first to light.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion. The Data section should include a diagram of the 2- or the 3-bulb circuit and some clearly documented observations. The observations should be pertinent to the Purpose. The Conclusion should (as always) answer the question posed in the Purpose of the lab.









Lab E9: Greatest Current

Question:
Where is the rate of charge flow within a simple circuit the greatest? ... the least? ... or is it everywhere the same?


Purpose:

To determine location within a simple circuit (if anywhere) where the rate of charge flow is the greatest.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion. The Data section should include a diagram of the simple circuit and the measurements and/or observations which were made. Measurements and/or observations should be clearly documented. The Conclusion should answer the question posed in the Purpose of the lab and identify the supporting evidence which validates the answer.









Lab E10: Voltage-Current-Resistance

Question:
What is the mathematical relationship between voltage, current and resistance?


Purpose:

To determine the mathematical relationship (i.e., equation) relating the voltage, current and resistance in a simple circuit.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include the provided table and graph - completed and taped in. A linear regression analysis should be performed and the results (slope, y-intercept and regression constant) should be reported. The Conclusion should report a general equation relating Delta V, I and R.  The Discussion of Results should discuss the evidence which supports the equation reported in the Conclusion; specific attention should be devoted to the slope-resistance relationship. An error analysis and percent error calculation should be included.








Lab E11: Series versus Parallel

Question:
When one light bulb goes out in a series or a parallel circuit, what happens to the other light bulbs? When the number of light bulbs in a series or a parallel circuit is increased, what happens to the overall current and the overall resistance of the circuit?


Purpose:

To compare the characteristics of series circuits to the characteristics of parallel circuits.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section includes a diagram of the two circuits being compared and a documented record of procedure and observations. The record is clear and relevant to the questions raised in the Purpose of the lab. The Conclusion/Discussion should respond to the questions raised in the Purpose.









Lab E12: Comparing Voltage Drops and Currents in Series

Question:
How do the voltage drops across the three resistors of a series circuit compare to each other? Are these voltage drops different for different resistors? How do the voltage drops compare to the voltage gain in the battery? How do the current values in the individual resistors compare to each other? Are these currents affected by the resistance of the resistors? How do the current values compare to the current at the battery location? For any individual resistor, how is the voltage drop, current and resistance related? How can all these comparisons be expressed using mathematical equations?


Purpose:

To compare current values at the three resistor locations of a series circuit and to compare voltage drops across the three resistors of a series circuit and the voltage gain across the battery.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a schematic of a three-resistor series circuit with labeled resistors. The resistance values should be indicated on the diagram. Ammeter locations should be indicated on the diagram as well. Measurements of Delta V1, Delta V2, and Delta V3 should be indicated in a table or on the diagram. Measurements of I1, I2, and I3 should be indicated in a table or on the diagram. The Conclusion/Discussion should identify equations relating the voltage drops for each resistor to the current at the resistor location and the resistance value. The voltage drops for the resistors should be compared to the voltage gain in the battery. Conceptual ideas should be extracted from the data and referenced to the data. Equations should be stated. An error analysis should be performed and percent difference values calculated.









Lab E13: Bulbs in Series Circuits Lab

Question:
When a low-R and a high-R bulb are placed together in series, which is brightest? Why? Which is brightest when they are alone in a circuit? Why? How do the voltage drops across and the current in the bulbs compare? How do these measurements support the observations of relative brightness?


Purpose:

To compare the brightness of low-R and high-R bulbs when placed together in series and to compare these brightness values to their brightness when placed alone in a single-bulb circuit AND to use voltage drop and current measurements to explain the observed differences.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include labeled schematic diagrams of the three circuits which you built and tested. Voltmeter arrangements and ammeter placements and readings should be recorded on your diagram. Observations of relative brightness should be recorded on the diagrams using starburst notations. All diagrams should be organized, legible and labeled. The Conclusion/Discussion should include the answer to the questions raised in the purpose accompanied by a lengthy explanation of why one bulb was brighter than another. Explanations should reference the collected data.









Lab E14: Comparing Voltage Drops and Currents in Parallel

Question:
How do the voltage drops across the three resistors of a parallel circuit compare to each other? Are these voltage drops different for different resistors? How do the voltage drops compare to the voltage gain in the battery? How do the current values in the individual branches compare to each other? Are these currents affected by the resistance of the branches? How do the current values compare to the current at the battery location? For any individual resistor, how are the voltage drop, current and resistance related? How can all these comparisons be expressed using mathematical equations?


Purpose:

To compare voltage drops across the three resistors of a parallel circuit and to compare current values at the three resistor locations and outside of the branches of a parallel circuit.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a schematic of a three-resistor parallel circuit. The resistance values should be indicated on the diagram. Ammeter locations should be indicated on the diagram as well. Measurements of Delta V1, Delta V2, and Delta V3 should be indicated in a table or on the diagram. Measurements of I1, I2, and I3 should be indicated in a table or on the diagram. The Conclusion/Discussion should identify equations relating the branch currents to the voltage drop and resistance values for those branches and to relate the branch currents to the total current in the circuit. Conceptual ideas should be extracted from the data and referenced to the data. Equations should be stated. An error analysis should be performed and percent difference values calculated.







Lab E15: Bulbs in Parallel Circuits

Question:
When a low-R and a high-R bulb are placed in separate branches of a parallel circuit, which is brightest? Why? Which is brightest when they are alone in a circuit? Why? How do the voltage drops across and the current in the bulbs compare? How do these measurements support the observations of relative brightness?


Purpose:

To compare the brightness of low-R and high-R bulbs when placed in separate branches of a parallel circuit and to compare these brightness values to their brightness when placed alone in a single-bulb circuit AND to use voltage drop and current measurements to explain the observed differences.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include labeled schematic diagrams of the three circuits which you built and tested. Voltmeter arrangements and ammeter placements and readings should be recorded on your diagram. Observations of relative brightness should be recorded on the diagrams using starburst notations. All diagrams should be organized, legible and labeled. The Conclusion/Discussion should include the answer to the questions raised in the purpose accompanied by a lengthy explanation of why one bulb was brighter than another. Explanations should reference the collected data.








Lab E16: Combination Circuits

Question:
How do the voltage drops across the various resistors of a combination circuit compare to each other? Are these voltage drops different for different resistors? How do the branch voltage drops compare to each other? How do the voltage drops compare to the voltage gain in the battery? How do the current values in the individual branches compare to each other? Are these currents affected by the resistance of the resistors? How do the current values compare to the current at the battery location? How do the current values in the branches compare to those values outside of the branches? For any individual resistor, how are the voltage drop, current and resistance related? How can all these comparisons be expressed using mathematical equations?


Purpose:

To develop equations which compare the currents in the individual resistors of a combination circuit to the current in the battery AND which compare the voltage drops for the individual resistors to the voltage gain in the battery AND which compare the voltage drop across an individual resistor to the current in that resistor and the resistance of that resistor.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include the provided page - completed and taped in. Work is should be shown for each type of calculation. Other calculations should be performed and shown in an effort to establish equations which relate the data to each other. The Conclusion/Discussion should state several mathematical equations relating the data. Conceptual ideas should be extracted from the data and referenced to the data. An error analysis should be performed and percent difference values calculated.

































Home || Unit Schedules || The Laboratory || Google Drive || Online Textbook

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