Navigation

The Laboratory

The Course Notebook

Lab Reporting

Labs

Makeup Labs


Research Project






Other Resources

ChemPhys 173 Home Page

ChemPhys 273 Home Page

Unit Schedules

The Review Session

The Quiz Room

GBS Physics Home Page

The Physics Classroom

WebAssign

Minds On Physics Internet Modules

Audio Help



Sound and Music Notebook Labs


View: Auxilliary Items  ||  Scoring Rubrics


The following items should be in the Sound and Music portion of your notebook.  They should be clearly organized and easy to find.  Use an organizational system and label all work. Each lab will be graded separately.  Seven Sound and Music lab grades will be entered into the gradebook. On overall notebook grade will be determined based on your use of the notebook as an organized and effective record-keeping tool which documents your engagement in the learning cycle during classtime.



S1.  Listen Up Lab

Question:
How would the intensity and the pitch of a sound observed by an observer change when the source of sound moves towards and away from an observer?

Purpose:
To compare the observed pitch and the intensity of a sound produced by an approaching source to the sound produced by a receding source.


A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion. The Data section should include organized observations of pitch and intensity for both the approaching sound source and the receding sound source. The Conclusion/Discussion section should thoroughly and clearly compare the pitch and the intensity of the sound for the two situations involving the moving source.




S2. Mach 1 Lab

Question:
What is the speed of sound? (using distance-time data)

Purpose:
To determine the speed of sound using the time it takes to travel a certain distance.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should record the results of several measurement trials in a well-organized table with column headings and units clearly shown. Speed values should be calculated and the work for one calculation should be shown. The average speed value should be determined; non-representative data should not be included in the averaging; this should be noted in the Data section. The Conclusion should respond to the question raised in the Purpose section (as always). The Discussion of Results should include an error analysis. The reliability of the data set should be discussed; comments should pertain to both accuracy and precision. Any trials not included in the average speed calculation should be discussed; the reason for their non-inclusion should be explained. The average speed value should be compared to the theoretical value; a percent error calculation should be made; work should be clearly shown.




S3. Natural Frequency and Standing Waves Lab

Question:
What are the natural frequencies at which a lab pole vibrates at and how can these frequencies be related to the standing wave pattern established in the pole?

Purpose:
To determine the natural frequencies of a vibrating lab pole when held at the one-half (center) mark, the one-fourth mark, the one-sixth mark, the one-eighth mark and the one-tenth mark and to relate these frequencies to the standing wave pattern established in the pole.


A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include the provided table – completed and taped in. Once collected, the Data should be analyzed in an effort to find a pattern and a relationship between the resonant frequencies and the standing wave pattern. This analysis should be documented in the lab notebook. Cross-outs, wrong turns, scribble-overs and other signs of investigative efforts should be evident in your lab notebook. The Conclusion/Discussion should include a discussion of how the frequencies relate to the standing wave patterns.Supporting evidence from the data analysis (in Data section) should be explicitly referenced.




S4. Closed End Air Column Lab

Question:
hat is the speed of sound? (closed end air column)

Purpose:
To determine the speed of sound using a closed end air column.


A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include collected data; data should be organized and labeled (a diagram may be more useful than a table). Calculations of speed should be organized, labeled and clearly shown. Fudge factor adjustments for end effect should be made; work should be shown and labeled.Class data should be included in the Data section. The Conclusion should respond to the question raised in the Purpose section (as always). The Discussion of Results should include an error analysis. The reliability of the results should be evaluated based upon the theoretical value for the speed of sound. A percent error calculation should be performed;labeled work should be shown.




S5. Open End Air Column Lab

Question:
What is the speed of sound? (open end air column)

Purpose:
To determine the speed of sound using an open end air column.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include collected data; data should be organized and labeled (a diagram may be more useful than a table). Calculations of speed should be organized, labeled and clearly shown. Fudge factor adjustments for end effects (both ends) should be made; work should be shown and labeled.Class data should be included in the Data section. The Conclusion should respond to the question raised in the Purpose section (as always). The Discussion of Results should include an error analysis. The reliability of the results should be evaluated based upon the theoretical value for the speed of sound. A percent error calculation should be performed;work should be shown and labeled.



S6. Guitar String Lab

Question:
How does doubling, tripling and quadrupling the length of a guitar string effect the collection of harmonic frequencies at which it naturally vibrates and the speed at which waves travel within it?

Purpose:
To determine how a doubling, tripling and quadrupling of the length of a string effects the collection of harmonic frequencies at which it naturally vibrates and the speed at which waves travel within in it.


A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include the provided table with all data collected. The Conclusion section should describe the effect of doubling, tripling and quadrupling the length upon the frequency of the waves and upon the speed of the waves.The Discussion of Results section should provide the logical support for the conclusion statements which are made; specific trials should be referenced as supporting evidence.




S6. Musical Intervals Lab

Question:
How do the sounds produced by two nearby keys (within seven half-steps apart) on the piano keyboard sound when played together?  Are certain frequency ratios more pleasing than others?

Purpose: 
To play nearby notes (not more than 7 keys apart) on the piano keyboard in order to determine if there are certain frequency ratios which sound more pleasing than others.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion. The Data section should include the provided table. The Conclusion/Discussion section should identify the collection of frequency ratios associated with notes which sound pleasant when played simultaneously. Specific trials in the Data section should be referenced as supporting evidence.  If additional data need to be collected, then it should be added to the Data section.




S7. Music in a Bottle Lab

Question:
How is the length of the air column in a pop bottle mathematically related to the frequency of the sound which it produces ?

Purpose:
To determine the mathematical equation relating the length of the air column in a pop bottle to the frequency of the sound which it produces.


A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion, and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a diagram of the experimental set-up with the height indicated on the diagram. It should also include a table of data organized in a row-column format.A plot of frequency vs. length (frequency along the y-axis) should be constructed;linear regression analysis should be performed and statistical results should be reported. The Conclusion should state the mathematical equation relating the frequency to the length of the air column; meaning of the symbols in the equation should be defined.The Discussion of Results should utilize information from class discussions and textbook readings in order to explain the meaning of the slope of the line on the graph.The meaning should be identified and logically discussed.




S8. Musical Intervals Lab

Question:
How do the sounds produced by two nearby keys (within seven half-steps apart) on the piano keyboard sound when played together?Are certain frequency ratios more pleasing than others?

Purpose:
To play nearby notes (not more than 7 keys apart) on the piano keyboard in order to determine if there are certain frequency ratios which sound more pleasing than others.


A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion. The Data section should include the provided table. The Conclusion/Discussion section should identify the collection of frequency ratios associated with notes which sound pleasant when played simultaneously. Specific trials in the Data section should be referenced as supporting evidence. If additional data need to be collected, then it should be added to the Data section.





S9. Musical Scales Analysis

Question:
How are the frequencies of the sounds produced by the keys on the piano keyboard mathematically related?

Purpose:
To develop a mathematical equation which relates the frequency played by the nth key (white or black) on the piano keyboard relative to any given key.


A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include the provided table.Some form of numerical analysis (a data plot with linear, power or logarithmic analysis, trial and error equation testing, and/or the use of additional columns of calculated data) should be performed to determine an equation which relates the frequencies of the various keys.The numerical analysis should be clearly documented.The Conclusion/Discussion should report the equation relating the frequency to the key number.An example of how the equation can be used to calculate the frequency of the nth key should be provided and explained.





S10. Timbre Lab

Question:
What is the relationship between the richness of an instrument's sound and the quantity of overtones within the sound? How can instruments be grouped according to their richness and purity?

Purpose:
To determine the relationship between the richness of an instrument sounds and the quantity of overtones found within the sound and to group the instruments according to their richness or purity.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion . The Data section should include the provided table. The Conclusion/Discussion should group instruments according to those which sound relatively rich and those which sound relatively pure. The relationship between the subjective sense of the sound and the objective observation of the quantity of overtones should be discussed. The discussion should reference specific examples from the Data section as supporting evidence.




S11. Who Can Hear Monte Tone? Lab

Question:
What is the relative loudness of sound which results when sound from two sources are heard at a given seat location of an automobile?

Purpose:
To analyze the interaction of sound waves from two speakers of an automobile in order to determine which seat locations in the automobile would experience constructive and destructive interference.


A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The data section should include the provided diagram (taped in) of the car with the indicated vehicle number and wave pattern letter.A table of data should be included indicating the part of each wave (compression or rarefaction) which reaches a given seat location and the resulting type of interference which results. The Conclusion/Discussion describes the relative loudness of sound which is heard at each indicated seat location.A short explanation is given for why the relative loudness is high or low at a given location.





S12. Opening Questions and your Use of a Notebook as a Record-Keeping Tool

Your course notebook is a record-keeping tool. You record information from class which can be used when doing homework and preparing for quizzes and tests. An organized and well-documented notebook typically serves as a useful and effective tool which a student can make much use of. Such a notebook includes notes from class post-lab discussions, book readings, and answers/discussions of opening questions. The information is recorded in the notebook in an organized manner which the student can understand upon review.

GBS Physics Home Page || ChemPhys 173 Home Page || ChemPhys 273 Home Page || The Physics Classroom

The Laboratory || Unit Schedules || The Review Session || The Quiz Room